Social Context of Mental Health and Illness

Modern social and economic situation, making powerful and various stressogenny influences, population health has a pernicious effect on mental. Every third citizen of Russia in the life faces problems of violation of mental health. The increase in quantity of mental disorders, the complete suicides, heavy offenses is in the last decade observed. The person — a being not only biological, but also social. The child deprived of the social environment, can’t become the full-fledged person, it doesn’t seize speech, has no idea of rules of social behavior.

As the person lives in society, he has to submit to its laws and react to the changes happening in social life. From all social factors a family — main. Its influence on a condition of mental health is traced at any age. But it has special value for the child, for formation of its character, behavior stereotypes in various situations. Unstable frosty relations in a family, cruelty manifestation first of all affect on mental health of the child. It is explained by fragility of its mentality, immaturity of emotions and rough response to negative events.

If the child isn’t able to cope with a situation, at him behavioural violations start appearing, stereotypic pathological reaction to a stress which in the subsequent, in an adult condition, will turn back neurotic or psychopathic development of the personality, aggression, various psychosomatic diseases is formed. Other pathogenic factor for mental development of the child is the situation of a social deprivation caused by dissonance in a family, loss of close people or separation from them.

The social deprivation leads to a delay of intellectual development, emotional violations in the form of depressions, to emotional coldness, decrease in will, an istoshchayemost of the incentive motives, the increased suggestibility, violations in the communication sphere. Such children are easily involved in antisocial and criminal groups, are inclined to toxicomanias, sexual dissoluteness. It is noted that the death of mother or divorce of parents rather often provoked development of fears at children.

Losses and problems in the childhood raise a susceptibility of the individual to stresses and mental disorders, but don’t conduct directly to development of a certain mental disease. Nevertheless children living in dysfunctional families, testing adverse effects of environment, treat group of risk of development of a mental disease have to be in the sphere of attention not only social workers or teachers, but also psychologists, psychiatrists. For the adult family relationship also has important value for mental health.

In a family with comfortable psychological climate, with emotional support negative influence on the identity of vital events is softened. If in a family the interpersonal relations have formal, indifferent character, deficiency in the emotional sphere and lack of support in problem situations is observed. Families of this type are risk factors of violations of mental health. If in a family the conflict relations, the cruel attitude towards children or the spouse are observed, such family itself becomes a factor of development of mental violations.

To the social factors influencing mental health, it is possible to carry the problems connected with work, housing, a dissatisfaction with a social status, social disasters and wars. The depression quite often develops at the persons which have lost work. And unemployment with bigger probability promotes development of a depression in those who in the past already lost work. Even after restoration at work the depression can proceed within two years, especially at persons with adverse family climate and lack of social support.

Prompt social, economic, cultural and political changes are naturally reflected in a social condition of society and public health. In the conditions of social tension and an economic crisis there are sharp withdrawal pains of vital stereotypes, former ideals fall, the situation of unpredictability, uncertainty in tomorrow is created. Prompt social changes make powerful stressogenny impact on people. Not each personality can quickly adapt to constantly changing living conditions, cope with arising psychological problems.

Owing to this fact preconditions for emergence of mental disorders and socially dangerous forms of deviating behavior are created. Statistical data show that social trouble is accompanied by growth of drug addiction, aggression, prostitution, the phenomena of a social orphanhood, increase in number of suicides, sexual violations and mental diseases. In turn, growth of cases of mental and behavioural deviations results in social tension in society, to rise in crime. That is the vicious circle is formed.