Scholasticism is a method of learning that was taught by academics of medieval universities circa. Usually scholasticism combined the ideas of semantics, metaphysics and logic into the one disciple. Scholasticism is recognized to develop the understanding of logic. Furthermore, it reconciled the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers (Aristotle, Plato, etc.) within Middle Ages applied to Christian theology. Nevertheless, scholasticism isn’t either theology or philosophy, because it is a method of learning which concentrates on the dialectical reasoning. The purpose of the science was to resolve a contradiction and to find answers to perplexing questions. Scholasticism was applied to medieval theology as well as to classical philosophy and other fields of study. (Rickaby 1998)
Concerning methods and studying programs it is known that scholastics used to choose a book by a scholar (auctor) and then to investigate it. They read the book thoroughly and critically and then evaluated the auctor’s theories. Scholasticism defined two learning methods: lectio and disputatio. During the lectio a teacher read the text, pointed out main ideas, though the questions were avoided. Actually lectio was simple reading of the text with thorough explanation and student’s silence. Disputatio was the heart of the scholasticism. Ordinary disputatio involved the question for disputation announced beforehand, whereas quodlibetal disputatio proposed the question without any preparations. The best-known proponents of scholasticism were Anselm of Canterbury, Solomon Ibn Gabirol, Grosseteste, Bacon, Scotus, Brito, William of Ockhlam, Lessius, etc. (Rickaby 1998)
Anti-scholastics were Erasmus, Bacon, More, Gallileo, Hobbes, Locke, Milton, Descartes, etc. They claimed that scholasticism didn’t reflect and even disrupted the reality and real origins. Anti-scholastics broke up with Aristotelian tradition and turned to mathematics, because they considered it the basic tool of science. Anti-scholastics denied the previous studies and promoted the idea of mathematical relationships to be in the base of the nature. (Rickaby 1998)
Rickaby, Joseph. (1998). Scholasticism. New York: Dodge Publishing Company.