Confucius once said regarding Chinese Hospitality, “How happy to have friends from far away. Indeed, based on this remark, one can see that friendship is regarded as a major ingredient of Chinese hospitality. And on the issue of making friends, Zhang Qian (2001) of the Shanghai Star, explained that there are four ways by which Chinese people make friends: giving a rich banquet, writing poems, undergoing suffering together and drinking wine. Now, if drinking one is placed in parallel with banquet, poems, and suffering, this must mean it carries a great value in terms of friendship and hence, on the area of hospitality. Wine consumption, hence, carries with it hedonistic values and social significance. This has been fueled by greater zeal in improving the quality of live of the individual, causing wine consumption to rise in a number of countries. (Dewald 2003)
Today, China is the sixth largest wine-producing nation and its influence has reached the United Kingdom as well (Ray 2008). For instance, one of the major wine-making companies in China which is also the largest and longest–established, the Changyu Company, has been exporting its wine to the UK. According to the famous Australian wine-makerLenz Moser and his partner in London, Iain Muggoch of Bibendum, these wines from China blended in the UK market very well.
Now, according to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (2007), UK is among the smallest wine producers in the whole of Europe. Despite this, UK is the largest in the world in terms of wine import. As a matter of fact, UK is considered the international trading center in wine. Because of this, the industry form the importers to the bottlers just continue to thrive. There are other great developments in the region. For instance, the Wine Industry Report published that Rioja was able to harness research of Wine Intelligence Vinitrac and translated it to sales. (Wine Industry Report 2007.) It’s neighbor, Germany, was also reported to have reached its highest wine consumption thus far. (Wine Industry Report 2008) Researchers have been to make market efforts more effective such as that of Drummond and Rule (2005). Even winemaking waste are studied as potential substance to prevent tooth decay. (Harpers 2008)
Because of these healthy signs, as far as market is concerned, it would just be wise to look at how, in concrete terms, does this affect UK and what better place to start than the Chinese restaurants in its capital city, London. This paper, therefore, aims to determine the factors affecting the consumer selection of wines in Chinese restaurants in London. By determining this, it is hoped that significant insights may be derived from this research which could help further the booming wine economy.
1.2 Scope and Limitations
The study give emphasis on leisure management as it determines the factors that influence consumer selection in Chinese restaurants. The study would be confined to London and only in particular, only to the ten restaurants which would be chosen by random sampling. Therefore, neighboring restaurants outside of London will not be considered in this research. The website London-eating provides a list of all candidate restaurants. The Royal China Club in Belgravia, Kam Fung in Bloomsbury, Yi-Ban in Chilsea, the Amoy New China Diner in Covenant Garden, and Shanghai in Docklands are examples of candidate restaurants which had been considered in the random sampling. Other restaurants, such as the Lotus Room, Mandarin, Tai Pan, An Nam Restaurant, ChiKaYan, Eden, Raw Lasan and Wing Yip, although Chinese were not considered because they were outside London. Furthermore, the results of the survey is limited to lunch and dinner only as no survey was done during breakfast time and snack time. For the purpose of this research, lunch is defined as food and drinks served between 10 AM to 2 PM and dinner is defined as the food and drinks served between 6 PM to 10 PM.
This study is done by qualitatively examining the existing literature available regarding the wine economy in the United Kingdom, in general. The literature review will proceed by first examining general perspectives on wine selection then examining it from the English and Chinese lenses. The former is important because this is the recipient culture of the study while the latter is significant because it is the original culture. Both these perspectives are important to provide a strong basis of the study. Later on, the survey would be presented to validate and contextualize the study, as well as define its parameters. Analysis of the data derived from the survey in the light of the literature review would provide a holistic study of the topic. From then, suitable recommendations can be made regarding wine industry with emphasis on leisure management in Chinese restaurants.
Currently there are existing literature that one can find in the Internet which can guide an individual in choosing wine and a number of them have been compiled by Sharon Kapnick (2007) of Time. Examples are those given by the experts such as Robert Parker through the Wine Advocate (2008) and Jancis Robinson (2008) but they are on the expert level. Essentially, there are already given factors in choosing wine as those elaborated by the Consumer Union of US (2008) in their Consumer Report. In a nutshell, it involved consideration of the tastes favored, careful consideration of brand, the time when the wine will be drank, and the pairing of wine with the food. These, however are mere technical considerations and are usually the concern of just the connoisseurs. The interest on this research, however, is only on the general level as not all consumer of wines are as sharp as those who would, out of leisure, read the Parker and Robinson.
Review of Related Literature
2.1 General Perspective on Choosing Drinks
There are many interrelating factors affecting the way beverages are chosen. That is why food choice models are an effective way of representing the relationships among these factors. According to Shepherd and Sparks (1994), these factors include physical, social and physiological. The physical factor is determined by geography, technology, economics, and season. The social factor involves religion, social customs, advertising, education and social class. Finally, the physiological factor is determined by heredity, allergy, acceptability and nutritional need. Though there are a number of models like this, they all have common features – identification of cultural and socio-economic factors, individual traits and data such as demography, knowledge, attitude and both extrinsic and intrinsic factors to the product. One such model is that which Khan (1981) developed.
In Khan’s model, these three factors are expanded into seven categories. First, familiarity, influence of others and emotional meaning associated with the beverage are classified under personal factors. Second, age, gender and similar physical and psychological factors are classified under biological factor. Third, advertising and variations in seasons are classified under extrinsic factor. Fourth, odor, appearance, texture and flavor are classified under intrinsic factor. Fifth, religious, cultural and regional factors are lumped together. Sixth, educational factors such as education regarding nutrition are treated as another category. Finally, income and the cost of beverage are classified under the socio-economic factor which is the last category.
For the purpose of this research, however, these models can be simplified into just two factors – extrinsic and intrinsic. However, since we are dealing with not just ordinary wine but with a particular type of wine – the Chinese wine – origin also play and important role, making it the third factor. According to Jacoby et. al.(1977), information regarding a product is conducted by the consumer prior to purchase. Both the intrinsic (e.g., specifications, design, and taste) and extrinsic (e.g., guarantees, price, and brand name) all come into play. In particular, Gabbott asserts that this is practiced by wine consumers. For instance, quality judgment is based on wine style, grape variety, processing method, and alcohol content (which makes up the intrinsic factor) and also price, packaging, brand name and labellings (which makes up the extrinsic factor.) (Lockshin and Rhodus, 1993)
Like the first two factors discussed, the country of origin has significant influence on the evaluation of consumers when they don’t know much about the true quality of the product of country in question. (Elliot ; Cameron, 1994 ; Huber ; McCann, 1982). Wall et. al. (1991) went even further to say that more that price and brand, the country of origin is a major consideration in assessing product quality.
2.2 Chinese Perspectives on Wine Drinking
No study on Chinese wine would be complete without an examination of its original context. According to Hrayr Berberoglu (2008), a Professor Emeritus of Hospitality and Tourism Management specializing in Food and Beverage, he would say that most people may be familiar with the indigenous vine species of Vitis amurensis and Vitis thunbergii and yet would have very low capacity on the enjoyment of western-style wine as up to this time, it is poorly, if not at all, understood. In contrast, the young people who live in key cities in China such as Beijing, Shanghai, Canton, and Xian, would really spend money on wine just to be able to experience and experiment different tastes. While a westerner may found the combination of merlot with coke, a Chinese would not. In fact, they may even add a few ice cubes to cool it as they consider wine a novelty and an “in” alcoholic beverage.
For about 1000 years now, Chinese have been enjoying alcohol. Yet until now, wine is not regarded as an alcoholic beverage. In fact, they don’t have a word for wine. The closes equivalent is “Chiew” which is actually some distilled or fermented drink that that is harsh, burning, and stinging as opposed to the refined, smooth, fruity, and refreshing liquid people regards as wine. An example of this is a liquor called “baijiu” which was derived from grapes but is composed of almost pure alcohol. (Reiss 2007)
According to historical records, grape seeds from Uzbekistan was brought by Gen. Chang Chien in China during the Han Dynasty around 121-136 BC. These seeds were planted in the Xingjian and Xian which was called Shaanxi then. There was also unclear reference in the 7th century AD to wine materials as being imported from the West – Tashkent, in particular.
Traditionally, the ingredients for Chiew are millet, sorghum and rice. Chiew is served before and after meals in small cups (as opposed to the Western concept of wine glasses) while listening to music. Moreover, it is never consumed alone – it has to be served with food.
Towards the dawn of the 19th century, the Chang Yu Winery in Yantai was established by Zhang Bi Shi after returning from abroad. Using Welschriesling from Austria, he planted vineyards in China. He even employed the Austrian consul as the winemaker. There was, however, no records on the taste of his wine.
In an interest to cater to foreigners and the diplomatic community, the French founded the Shang Yi Winery in Beijing. By 1949, however, they closed down all wineries except those which were government operated to increase production at the expense of quality. Fermented cereals, colouring solution, sugar, and water were added to a wine-resembling mixture which was not affordable for those who didn’t know anything about wine. Those who did, on the other hand, outrightly rejected it.
Since the 80’s, the Chinese government have encouraged investment in the alcoholic beverage industry. Remy Martin of Cognac fame’s partnership with the Tianjin Fram Bureau was the first response to this. Later on, the Huadong winery was also established by Hong Kong businessmen in Quingdao (i.e. Tsingtao) and is now managed by a multinational distiller. Other wine companies which sprouted were The Penod-Richard in Beijing which was established in 1987 and the Marco Polo winery in Yantai built in 1990. Aside from these, there was also a winery project called Summer Palace which involved the former Canadian liquor multinational, Seagram. All these used Vitis vinifera. In addition, there were some old vineyards planted by scientists from Russia. They used their own grape varieties – Rkatsiteli, Severnyi and others – and mixed it with Black Hamburg which is famous for its sweet fruit and wines.
Due to the increasing demand from tourist and the young, as well as the night clubs and Chinese markets, Huadong Winery embarked on the planting of 50 hectares of chardonnay in Shandong. Due to the age of the vines and overproduction, the wines produced were excessively acid, light and needs more body and extract. In addition to this problem, the humidity in China also causes mildew, white rot and oidium diseases, just to name a few.
Aside from these problems, there was also a marketing problem as average Chinese consumers do not really like grape wines. That is why merlot was being mixed with coke and chardonnay was being mixed with clear soft drinks. Sometimes, even red and white wines are mixed in addition to ice to cool it and soft drinks to produce a sweet taste. What they do like, however, are oxidized alcohol which is the residue of rice win or dry sherry which is a substitute for rice wine in numerous Chinese food recipes.
Presently, China owns approximately 65,000 hectares of vineyards as assessed by China’s statisticians although most of the fruits harvested was meant to be dried or eaten rather than be used for the purpose of making wine. In fact, only 20% of the grapes harvested was used for this purpose. The 200 wineries in existence in China now try competing with the imported wines from US, Canada, France, Germany and Italy. Right now, Canada seemed to take an advantage as Chinese consumer like their sweet wines and cherish it all the more as its price increases.
In general, though, the population appears to prefer liquor since it gets them inebriated more quickly despite consumption of small quantities. They consume this usually on social occasions and never as thirst-quenchers like the Europeans. (Balestrini & Gamble 2006). Wines from Chardonnay, rkatsiteli, riesling, carbanet suvignon, sauvignon blac, and merlot grapes, however, yield only low to medium alcohol contents. Despite this, manufacturers can deliberately raise alcohol levels to 49% as there is now law regulating this. It is for this reason that some Chinese wines are undrinkable if not almost unacceptable.
2.3 UK Perspectives on Wine Drinking
Historically, UK’s wine connection dates all the way back to the time of the Romans. So far, UK is home to 362 registered vineyards which occupy 923 hectares of land. In 2006 alone, it has produced about 3.3 million bottles or an equivalent of 25,000 hectoliters of wine. During the times of the monasteries (by the time of the Conquest of the Normans), vineyards were already maintained in a number of places of 42 of them are recorded in the Doomsday Book (1085-1086). Wine production at this time was focused along the coastal areas. Due to different causes such as the Black Death, depletion of labor, breaking up of monasteries, climate changes and increase imports of wine from France, the Middle Ages up to the 20th century witness a decline in vineyards. After World War II, however, wine was established once more by post war pioneers. Hambledon vineyard in Hampshire was the first one to be established in 1951. (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs 2007) The next 30 years witnessed significant developments in the industry up to the point that researches were even undertaken today for the purpose of furthering the wine industry. Even the hot weather in UK helped further its wine industry in recent years. (Madslien 2003). Among the recent findings in the wine industry are as follows:
The presentation of study made by Lulie Halstead at LIWSF 2007 which was published by Wine Intelligence (2007), she showed emperically if UK consumers place a bearing on organic, Fairtrade, sustainability and environmental issues when it comes to buying wine. The study showed that when it comes to organic and fair trade, there is a high awareness but doesn’t directly result to sales. Her results showed that 64% of her respondents are aware of Organic wines and fair trade wines as opposed to 3% biodynamic wine which, according to one respondent, is not even in his vocabulary. Despite this, only 11% and 9% buy organic and fair trade wines respectively. When asked about the reason for buying organic wine, a majority of the respondents (55%) say that it’s because pf the ill effects of pesticides and fertilizers for the environment. Forty-four percent (44%) say organic wines support smaller producers while 38% say buying and eating natural products makes them feel good. Only 18% of the respondents say that organic wine taste better than other type.
In a parallel study made by Howard Brian (2007), the UK On-trade presents a great opportunities for the wine market in the eary of investment and distribution. Indeed, visibility plays a vital role in the realization of this opportunity. Yet, according to the study, only 25% of the hotels and resturants sampled have wine lists outside while only half have display bottles. Of all the samples, only two have a feature wine racks in the dining area. Usually, the practice of 70% of the respondents serving in white table cloth dining is to present the wine list together with the food menu. There were even three cases in the white table cloth type of dinning that the visitors would have to request the wine list.
For casual dinning, the situation is no better. In all the restaurants surveyed, only one has a wine list visible outside. Just like in white table cloth restaurants, only 25% of casual dining restaurants have bottles on display while just half would have wine lists at the table or bar. As practiced in the white table cloth restaurants, wine list are also made a part of standard food menu and this holds true for 45% of the respondents. There was also one case of diners having to request for the wine list.
In Brian’s assessment of the scenario, he expounded of the value of the wine lists as it deals with both the aspect of range and of value. Unfortunately, he discovered that branded wines have very low visibility as only 50% of the top-20 brands can be seen featured on casual dining lists. Further more, there was a lack of customer-facing marketing strategy such as promotions and positioning of branded wines as benchmark. In fact, of the top twenty brands, only the following brands occurred: Hardy’s – once, Gallo – once, Blossom Hill – once, Wolf Blass – twice, Lindermans – once, Montana – twice, Concha y Toro / Casillero del Diablo – thrice, and Rosemount – once.
In as much as wine list is important, having it is not enough. Help must also be provided in choosing and exploring wine. In the pitiful number of resturants employing wine lists, less than 25% in white table cloth. Sometimes, wine lists are exaggerated in the sense that over 80 wines are listed while some even go over 200, making it overwhelming and unnecessary support for most guests, especially those whose priority is socializing with guests. The scenario is indeed a lot better in casual dining as 80% of those with wine lists include tasting notes and/or recommendations for food pairing.
Another important consideration is service which Brian defines as the sum of attention and involvement. He observed, based on his study, that on 23% of the sample brought bottle already opened while 50% of the cases involving casual dinning presented bottle not label first. There was also a good number (i.e. 15%) of cases where the bottles was not presented at all to the person who ordered. Even the satisfaction of customers of the wine was hardly checked (15%) in white table cloth restaurants and not at all in casual restaurants. The same is true regarding the inquiring if a second bottle is required – i.e., only 25% in white table cloth restaurants and not at all in casual restaurants, as well as if giving suggestions for dessert after drink – 15% in white table cloth restaurants and not at all in casual restaurants.
Overall wine experience what not all that bad, though. Strong points include having good selection of wines at most price points with only low-end as the exception, good selections of wine by glass in most locations which compensates of the long (and often overwhelming lists offered in white table cloth restaurants). A small minority in both sectors also encourage consumers to try new wines. The white table cloth sector was particularly commended in having enthusiastic staff who are committed to the wine offer and know how to match the food with the wine. They were also said to be discrete yet attentive – something that causes dinners to be at ease. Lastly, brands in the casual dining sector also have some visibility.
There were a number of areas, however, that need to be improved. This include having staff with little or no interest in wine at all. Thus, their training was put to good use in selling food but not in wine offers, wasting opportunity. Either for lack of attention or lack of confident, knowledgeable guidance, help and reassurance was not properly extended. Familiar brands were underutilized as they could have been used chiefly as self-choosing tool.
Brian also found out that there were numerous examples of serving staff having little or no interest in wine. They also suggest uncertain customers just to have house wines as default, if not decline wine altogether. Only the casual dinning sector made use of familiar brands as a tool for self-choosing. Dinners were also not encouraged nor supported to trade or try new wines in both sectors. Furthermore, wines are very rarely viewed to be as important as food for offer. Majority of the sample also fail to give attention to marketing and promotion of wine.
Consequently, consumers fall back on self-selection because wine names may be unfamiliar, there is pressure to choose hurriedly to give way to socializing or business, there’s a long or not understandable list of wines in the white table cloth sector and there is a lack of skills and enthusiastic staff to mitigate risk in the case of casual dining. They also perceive an unbalanced high-end pricing with respect to the price of key main dish in the case of the white tablecloth sector.
2.4 Market Opportunities
According to Lulie Halstead (2005), the UK wine market is the largest and most dynamic market for imported wine in the world. It’s worth is estimated to range from 7 to 9 billion pounds. Of all alcoholic drinks consumed, wine share about 30% by value. Furthermore, just the 30% of wine consumers account for three-fourths of the consumption.
There are about 45 million adults in the United Kingdom and only 14 of them are non-wine drinkers. Of the remaining 31 million, eight million drink wine less than once monthly, 11 million drink wine once to thrice monthly and 12 million drink wine at least weekly accounting for 6%, 19% and 75% of off-trade respectively.
The growth of the wine industry since the year 1995 is remarkable. For instance, market by volume and value is reported to have roughly doubled from that time. Penetration has increased from mere 60% to 68% while the weight of purchase has increased from 15.3 L/ head to 24 L / head in a span of just eight years since 1995. Despite this, the average cost of a 750 mL bottle is growing only at 2% yearly, failing to respond to inflation in the UK.
Contrary to popular belief that the young (those who are less than 35 years of age) consume much of the wine today, the Lulie’s study show that they only account for 17% of all the wine consumed. Those in age range 35-65 years old all exceed this value. In fact, survey showed that those who are 35-44 years old account for about 21%, 45-54 years old account for about 22%, 55-64 years old account for about 18% and those who are above 65 years old account for about 23% of wine consumption.
Richard Halstead (2006) identified the different people groups as far as wine consumption is concerned. The first group is called the adventurous connoisseurs. They are broadsheet readers who have a high income. They have a high frequency of consuming wire which may turn on and off and they have high spending and high involvement with wines. The second group of people is called the mainstream at-homers who are the middle-income professionals living in suburban areas. They also have high involvement and have high frequency of wine intake with average spending. They usually drink their wine at home. The third group of people are called the weekly treaters which is composed mainly of young singletons. They have a moderate wine involvement and have a low frequency of – albeit above average spending on – wine consumption. The fourth type of people is called the sociable bargain-hunters who are described as prosperous empty nesters. They also have high frequency of wine intake (especially on-trade) but low spending on wines. Their involvement with wines ranges from low to moderate. Finally, we have the frugal conservatives who are the low income TV watchers. They have low frequency wine consumption, low spending on wines, and low wine involvement.
Richard also highlighted the behavior of regular wine drinkers when it comes to buying of wine. Results indicate that wines are bought in specific types of outlets. According to the survey, most regular wine consumers get their goods from either formal restaurant or casual restaurant (i.e. about 80%). Local pubs (about 75%), wine bars (about 65%) and gastro-pub (about 60%) have the lowest ratings. Moreover, gastro-pubs and local pubs are perceive to sell wines which have poor money value. Incidentally, the price of wine on offer is the leading reason why consumers do not buy wine more often (i.e. according to 44% of the respondents). The other reasons involve the quality of the wine (16%), the range of wine (13%) and the lack of retail (by glass) availability (9%) are the next three reasons.
In an online survey conducted last April 2006 to over 1,330 individuals who are residents of the UK, over 18 years of age, and who drink wine at least once a month, 72% reported that they drink wine in pubs and bars – a fall from the 76% figure the year before that. If ever they drink wines from these two places, it was only for socializing and done without food. Nineteen percent (19%) of the respondents reported that it was through a birthday, a wedding, or another social celebration. Out of the 34% who drank without a meal, 45% of them drink with friends on a major night out, 21% take wine while they are in a pub or night club, 18% drink with colleagues for business purpose and 6% drink as a form of relaxation. Of the 32% who drink with a meal, 47% drink with a general meal, 35% have a meal with friends and 18% eat with a family or partner.
The number one reason why people don’t drink in pubs is that they prefer other drinks such as beer and spirits. This has been attested by 40% of the responses. Far second is that they do not go in pubs (19%), they perceive wines in pubs to be too expensive or of poor value (18%), they only drink wine with food (9%), the wines are not properly kept and are of poor quality (5%) and the available selection is poor (3%).
It was also shown in this study that the propensity to drink wine in pubs and bars decreases with age. Based on the survey, ages 18-24 has 82%; ages 24-34 has 78%; ages 25-54 has 71% and ages 55 and beyond has 67% penetration. Now, regarding the penetration by Wine Intelligence figures, the sociable bargain hunters top the list with 99% followed by the adventurous connoisseurs, weekly treaters, mainstream at-homers and frugal conservatives with 97%, 88%, 87% and 31% respectively.
It is reported that the most dissatisfied at pubhouses are the higher value consumers who drink wine heavily (i.e., more than twice weekly). They are more involved wine drinkers who are 35-54 years old and either mainstream at-homers and adventutous connoisseurs. In order to have them more often in this places, it is suggested that wines be looked after properly, prices be clearly displayed, price of the wine be reasonable, the brand must be reconizable and the description must be acceptable. Putting all these findings together, the need of consumers must be met by reassuring them in terms of value and quality.
In conclusion, the survey shows the top ten ways by which consumer would be encouraged to buy more wine: (1) More promotions/special pricing/discounts – 72%; (2) More tasting opportunities for wines which are not familiar – 70%; (3) Wide range of choices for wines that are less than 10 pounds a bottle – 68%; (4) Providing more selections of the type of wines consumers usually drink in their homes – 66%; (5) Bar staff has to have more knowledge about wine – 65%; (6) Better presentation of wine on or behind the bar – 62%; (7) Bar staff having greater zeal in helping customers choose wine – 61%; (8) Providing more famous brands as choices – 55%; (9) Having more wines available by glass – 54% and (10) Having more selection of wines in the 10-15 pounds per bottle price range.
2.5 Future Opportunities
Lulie Halstead (2005) predicted the future trends of wine consumption based on political, economic, social and technological factors. In particular, the consumer model was based on how the 2015 UK government would most likely treat wine, what are the predictable economic influences, what would be the consumer relationship with wine and how would new technology impact the way wine products are both in and out of the country.
Based on her research, the wine penetration would continue to increase, albeit slightly, to 71% compared to 68% in 2004. This is also predicted to be the highest natural attainable value as 20% of the population claim not to drink alcohol. In terms of consumption, it is predicted that 35 liter per head for those who are above 15 years old would be reached at this time. Again, this is the natural ceiling which is noted to be way less than the 50 liters per heat consumed in southern countries of Europe.
In terms of population, it is likely that those who are 45 years old or older will consume more than 67% of all wines in the UK while those who are below this age will consume the rest. Purchase behavior will take less precedence to consumption occasion as a driving force in choosing wine. As it is today, price and country of origin would be of greates value in terms of serving as key product choice criteria. In effect, word of mouth, recommendations from third party, as well as label information in the front and the back of the product would also be of significant interest to people.
Branding is another factor that is important in choosing wine while sales promotion may take on a less important role. It is expected that consumer scepticism of the real value of the offer would increase with the supplier scepticism. In addition, there would also be more occasions to drink wine so there would be growth in the sale of casual wine drinking at home weekly and on-trade drinking occasions as there would be an increase in the selection and trust level of consumers. An increase in health consciousness would also be a factor, causing people to prefer wine over beer and spirits. Diversity and experimentation is also likely to prevail but value will continue to be considered at all price points. As there would be continued disloyalty any particular brand, there would be more producer brands and their increase in market share would increase as well. As there would be a general increase in the supply of quality wine on a global scale, prices are expected to low, resulting to a further falling of demand in traditional wine countries. Reliability and user-friendliness is expected to increase as modernization and revolution of packaging continues. In terms of demand, alcohol levels would be low (i.e., less than 12%). Agricultural integrity as well as sustainability of agriculture would also be a factor at this time.
In general, a 33% growth in volume of UK wine market is expected over a decade but its real price is expected to fall as the market fails to keep up with the growth in volume caused by increased drinking of consumers.
2.6 Current Issues
According to Davis et. al. (2007), there is a relatively high awareness on organic and fairtrade wine in the UK. This is according to a study of 1,010 UK wine drinkers. Twenty percent of regular wine drinkers have high probability of paying up to 50% more for wines that are Fairtrade and only 13% for wines that are organic.
Environmental issues, on the other hand, are not usually considered. Food miles are not exactly a concern of people although there are some who would regard this as a very important issue to the point that they would look out for food which are produced locally or seasonally. Moreover, they consider wine bottles to be environment-friendly, neglecting the fact that it takes tremendous amount of energy just to be able to produce those bottles.
Analysis and evaluation of research hinge on the methodology on gathering information. Even at the onset, filtration of information in necessary for both primary and secondary sources to ensure validity.
Sources can be classified into primary and secondary. Primary sources are the direct result of the research being undertaken while secondary sources are the interpretation of the events that happened during the course of the research based on primary sources. (Bell 1999) Information can be processed in two ways: through the quantitative method or the qualitative method.
In order to come up with a more comprehensive understanding of wine of the factors involved in the selection of wines in Chinese restaurants, the early stages of this research were devoted to examination of secondary sources in order to gather enough information to provide the essential theoretical framework and support for the study. Online sources such as catalogues and online indexes were also used in order to gather information. All these can be found in the Literature Review on the previous section.
The primary sources, on the other hand, came in later to build on the initial finding derived from the secondary sources. To tap into the primary sources, questionnaires were employed in order to produce a high rate of response, and thus establish the findings from secondary sources. Data gathered from the primary sources can be found in the next section.
In as much as primary and secondary sources form a formidable research ground, it also has its limitations. For instance, primary sources obtained through questionnaires may not generate the expected high response rate and this could be due to the fact that there could be too manny questions. Moreover, if these questions require in-depth answer, the response rate could even go lower. Secondary sources are also problematic in the sense that production of books cannot cope up with the information disseminated through digital technology. The result, therefore, is information lacking in depth without any extensive and detailed analysis are gathered. More time can even be wasted just filtering all the numerous websites and the large volume of unneeded information they provide.
The quantitative method of study is appealing in the sense that outcomes are collected from widely comparable experience. Through this method, theories are tested, facts are established, and relationships are shown, predicted, and described statistically. The data gathering is usually done by surveying and the findings are processed through statistical analysis. In this case, a positivist philosophy is employed wherein it is assumed that knowledge and facts are objective. Moreover, it hinges on the assumption that complex problems can only be understood if it is studied into simpler components. In doing so, the researcher is looking for universal laws governing the study subjects whenever it exists. The downside of this method is that it tends to be be expensive and very time-consuming. Moreover, the data collection phase can post some challenges. For instance, design instruments must be close to flawless. There must be a great deal of administrative control and clerical accuracy. Then comes the question of number wherein it is imperative that there won’t be just few samples to begin with. In fact, the lowest acceptable sample size for this method is 30.
The qualitative method, on the other hand, is used in order for a grounded theory to be gained, multiple realities to be described and behavior naturally occurring to be described. It is the converse of the qualitative method. In this case, a set of facts is of less interest. The stress of this research method is gaining an insight on the subject under study. In this case, a subjectivist approached is employed to the social world. The underlying philosophy of this is that problems cannot be understood entirely if studied one by one. That is why in this method, problems are treated as a network of links and relationships. The main advantage of this method is that its flexibility is not sacrificed even if the study is intensive. There wouldn’t be a need for a large number of samples because even just one sample would suffice if it is studied thoroughly in a predetermined length of time. Just like the quantitative method, it has disadvantages as well. One of them is that it takes a long time to develop due to the absence of structure in the design. Another disadvantage is in relation to its rigor and subjectivity.
For this study, both qualitative and quantitative methods were merged together in the questionnaire although the quantitative aspect would take dominance. Particular questions were prepared in advanced so as to reflect core issues in this research such as purpose and satisfaction of customers in choosing wine in Chinese restaurants. Moreover, the basic question categorization scheme, as discussed by Yin (1989), would incorporate the familiar series of who, what, where, how, and why. Whenever possible, comparative study would also used to compare and contrasts the results of in order to fully establish the facts.
3.3 Instrument Design
To generate higher response rate, screen suitability of respondents and establish a wider selection of answers, a survey questionnaire was designed. As Priest (1996) noted, empirical data is obtained from the survey as a result of direct, systematic observation as opposed to specification information. The survey was designed to be comprehensive in the sense that all the needed information were covered yet it was kept short so that people will be encouraged to fill it up.
The following were the questions raised on this survey:
Which of the following can you best identify with?
 Connoisseurs, broadsheet readers, high income, high frequency of consuming wine, high spending and high involvement with wines.
 At-homers, middle-income professionals, living in suburban areas, have high involvement and have high frequency of wine intake with average spending, often drink their wine at home.
 Young singletons, have a moderate wine involvement, low frequency of wine consumption, average wine spending.
 Bargain-hunters, empty nesters, prosperous, high frequency of wine intake, low spending on wines, low to moderate involvement with wine.
 Conservatives, low income, TV watchers, low frequency of wine consumption, low spending on wines, low wine involvement.
How often do you go to this restaurant?  always (at least once a week)  sometimes (at least once a month but not always)  rarely (once in a while)
Why did you go to this restaurant? (Check as many as appropriate.)  Business reasons (e.g. I have a meeting with my boss here.)  Social Reasons (e.g. It’s my Mom’s birthday and we’re treating her out.)  Personal Reasons (e.g. I like Chinese food.)
Did you order Chinese wine?  Yes  No
If you ordered Chinese wine, were there other types of wine?  Yes  No
How would you compare Chinese wine with other wines?
 I like Chinese wine better.  I like other wines better.  I’m indifferent.
How often do you order wine?  always (every visit)  sometimes (at least once in every four visits but not always)  rarely (once in a while)
What motivated you to order the wine you ordered? (Check as many as appropriate.)
 I like the taste, color, presentation, feel and/or texture.
 To celebrate with family, friends and/or business colleagues.
 I want to drink something different for a change.
 I was attracted to the wine list on display.
 The waiter suggested that I try one.
 The restaurant has a wine promotion when I came.
 I want to make sure my choice reflects my concern for the environment.
 Others: (Please specify.)
Was there a wine list provided by the restaurant?  Yes  No
If there is one, how do you find the wine list? (Check as many as appropriate.)
 Very Long  Very Short  Contains tasting notes  Contains food combination suggestion
Is the wine list incorporated in the menu?  Yes  No
Were you satisfied with the wine?  Yes  No
How would you describe the wine? (Check as many as appropriate.)
 Refined  Smooth  Stinging  Fruity  Burning  Refreshing  Harsh
Were you satisfied with the price of wine?  Yes  No
Did the waiter ask if you were satisfied with the wine  Yes  No
Did the waiter ask if you would want a second bottle of wine?  Yes  No
Can you still recall the wine you ordered?  Yes  No
What was its alcohol content?  Low (Less than 12%)  Medium (12%-25%)  High (Greater than 25%)
Question 1 establishes the background of the respondent based on classification made by Howard Brian (2007). Instead of asking, “Which group do you belong?” the question was stated that way in order not to offend those who are coming from the conservative class or from low income groups which would prevent them from divulging the truth. At least, in framing the question this way, they would not take that by ticking a particular group, they belong completely to thats group or every description of that group fits them. On the contrary, the framing of the question ensures them that it doesn’t mean the description fit them completely but rather, it just describes them best. Another advantage of framing the question this way is that important insights on the identity of the respondents can be obtained without having them answer numerous questions which would take up more of their time. In this way, they could focus more on other questions directly related to the study. Now, Questions 2 and 3 tackles how often and for what reason did the respondent go to the Chinese restaurant they went to. Together with the first question, these three questions gives crucial background information regarding the respondent. Questions 4 to 9 all deal with the respondents view on wines. In particular, questions 4 and 5 focus on Chinese wine. Questions 5 to 7 focuses more on the extrinsic factors influencing their decision while questions 8 and 9 focuses more on the intrinsic factors. It is important to note that the choice “Others” in question 6 is where the qualitative aspect of this research would come it. Since its open ended, respondents are free to write down other motivations which would help answer the aim of this paper: To determine the factors affecting consumer selection of wine in Chinese restaurants.
3.4 Survey Implementation
The survey was conducted through ten pre-selected Chinese restaurants in London. Selection of these restaurants involve listing all known restaurants in London and assigning each one a random number. Then, restaurants were arranged in ascending order. The first ten on the list was then pre-selected.
The managers of pre-selected restaurants were contacted and permission was obtained to do the survey. In return, they will be furnished with results which is hoped to help them manage their business better. For a period of one week, people have been assigned to each restaurant to give out a survey during lunch and dinner to those who are have just finished their dinner. Each of these survey forms already have a control number which is actually a pre-assigned random number. After collecting all the survey forms from all ten restaurants, they were all mixed together and were arranged in ascending order according to their control number and results were tabulated.
3.5 Reliability and Validity
Priest (1996) defines reliability as having the same results if the same experiment or measurement is repeated. To ensure this, careful random sampling was done as described in Section 3.6. Reliability would have been further increased if the same procedure were repeated to validate the first results. However, due to time and financial constraints, this was not done. Instead, the review of related literature would serve as a balance to the findings here, especially Section 2.3 which is basically contextualized in UK setting.
Another means by which reliability is increased is handling information gathered through the internet with great care as some web pages contain unofficial, exaggerated, biased, or falsified information for the advantage of certain groups. In order to minimize the occurrence of such this, favour was given to official over non-official web pages. Also, official textbooks and journals were consulted to provide a more balanced argument.
Validity, on the other hand, refers to the researcher is measuring the item he/she intends to measure. (Priest 1996). To ensure that the survey is valid, two colleagues who are also working on researches were asked to review and comment on the questionnaire. Based on their feedback, the questionnaire was revised and returned back to them for their final approval. Only after a “go” signal was given by both colleagues were the survey forms given out.
3.6 Data Analysis
According to Altheide (1996), “data analysis consists of extensive reading, sorting, and searching through your materials; comparing within categories, coding, and adding key words and concepts; and then writing mini-summaries of categories.” (p. 43) This aspect was intially done in developing the review of related literature but is more extensively done in the processing of data and discussion of findings found at the succeeding sections.
Table 4-1 below shows the composition of the sample. Most of the respondents are either connoisseurs or young singletons making up almost 50% of the population. There were also 18% at-homers, and 14% bargain hunters. It is interesting to note that the conservatives surpass this both this group in numbers at 19%.
1. Connoisseurs, broadsheet readers, high income, high frequency of consuming wine, high spending and high involvement with wines
2. At-homers, middle-income professionals, living in suburban areas, have high involvement and have high frequency of wine intake with average spending, often drink their wine at home.
3. Young singletons, have a moderate wine involvement, low frequency of wine consumption, average wine spending.
4. Bargain-hunters, empty nesters, prosperous, high frequency of wine intake, low spending on wines, low to moderate involvement with wine.
5. Conservatives, low income, TV watchers, low frequency of wine consumption, low spending on wines, low wine involvement
Table 4-1. Composition of the Population
As shown in Table 4-2, most of the respondents (54%) are regular guests in Chinese restaurants. A good number (33%) also visit the restaurant sometimes (i.e., at least once a month but not always.) Together, it means that the majority of population (87%) pays these restaurants a visit at least once a month.
FREQUENCY OF VISIT
Always (At least once a week)
Sometimes (At least once a month but not always)
Rarely (Once in a while)
Table 4-2. Frequency of Visit
While mostly come for social reasons (92%), there are also many who come for business reasons (89%) and there is not much significant difference between these two figures. Those who come for personal reasons are too far behind either at 81% as shown in Table 4-3.
REASON FOR VISIT
Table 4-3. Reason for Visit
A great majority (93%) of those who come to Chinese restaurants also order wine. While only Chinese wines are expected in Chinese restaurants, it is surprising to find out that there were also other types of wine available, says 7% of the respondents. As Table 4-4 would show, 37% of the respondents believe that Chinese wines are better than other wines while 34% say it’s the other way around. However, these figures do not differ much.
ASSESSMENT OF CHINESE WINE
Chinese wine is better than other wines available in the market
Other wines in the market is better than Chinese wine
Table 4-4. Assessment of Chinese Wine
Table 4-5 shows how often visitors order Chinese wine. Majority of them (88%) order every visit. Of course, as Table 4-2 would show, “every visit” would mean at least once a week or once a month for majority of the people but there would be a small 13% which “every visit” would mean once in a long while.
ORDERING CHINESE WINE
Always (Every visit)
Sometimes (At least once in every four visits but not always)
Rarely (Once in a while)
Table 4-5. Frequency of Ordering Chinese Wine
Several reasons were seen as to what motivates customers in Chinese restaurants choose wine and these are shown in Table 4-6.
Taste, color, presentation, feel and/or texture.
Celebrate with family, friends, and/or business colleagues.
To drink something different for a change.
Wine List on Display
Table 4-6. Motivation for Ordering Wine
To most people, the no. 1 motivation would be surprising: suggestion from the waiter as asserted by 92% of the respondents. Celebration with family, friends, and/or business colleagues would be the no. 2 reason at 88%. Other reasons in descending order of significance are taste, color, presentation, feel and/or texture – 66%, wine promotion – 43%, wine list on Display – 41%, to drink something different for a change – 39% and environmental concern – 7%. There are four unclassified reasons: (1) “This is where my Mom and Dad met so it has a sentimental value for me,” (2) “Nearby restaurant is full already,” (3) “This feels more like home” and (4) “I can study while eating at this place.”
It is also important to note that a separate wine list is not usually provided in most Chinese restaurants as it is in the case of other casual and white cloth restaurants as only 47% reported the existence of such separate wine list. Table 4-7 also shows how the respondents perceive such wine lists. Most of them didn’t think these four descriptions are fitting. In any case, very few numbers have very varying opinions regarding it and the reader can just take a look at the figures below:
Contains Tasting Notes
Contains Food Combination
Table 4-7. Describing the Wine List
Not everyone was satisfied with their wine, though. Only 74% reported satisfaction. Most reported that they perceive it to be burning – 87%, harsh – 80%, and stinging – 87%. There were only few people who described the wine served as refreshing – 34%, refined – 24%, smooth – 28% or fruity – 18% as shown in Table 4-8.
Table 4-8. Describing the Wine
It was also found out that in most cases (86%), the waiter asked them if they were satisfied and about the same number (83%) also reported that they were asked if the would want another one. Most of the respondents (77%) claimed that they could not remember the wine that was served to them but most recall that it has high to medium alcohol content.
ORDERING CHINESE WINE
Low (Less than 12%)
Medium (12% to 25%)
High (Greater than 25%)
Table 4-9. Wine Alcohol Content
Determining the factors which influence consumer selection of wine in Chinese restaurants can be indeed be analyzed from certain angles. In Section 2.1, Shepherd and Sparks (1994) suggested physical, social, and physiological factors. While these may be valid, the focus of this research is on leisure management. Therefore, these factors play only very little roles to command attention. Those that have been suggested by Khan (1981) are more appropriate for this study. These include cultural and socio-economic factors as well as socio-economic factors. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, as well as many other factors, also come into play, totaling to seven but only three were taken for the purpose of this research – extrinsic, intrinsic, and country of origin – and thus included in the survey. Examples of data of this type refer to questions relating to price (extrinsic), alcohol content (intrinsic) and Chinese wine (country of origin).
Certainly, the Chinese perspective that wine carries a social significance has been validated by the survey in the sense that the majority of those who came to the Chinese restaurants (92%) were there primarily for social reasons and that a huge chunk of this number (93%) order wine. It is likely that the long Chinese tradition has been passed on to owners of Chinese restaurants and thus, everything that was discussed in Section 2.2 has something to do with this in one way or another.
It is interesting to note that most of the people who were surveyed are connoisseurs or young singletons. As seen in Section 4, this group makes up almost half of the population. Generally, these two groups have average to high income as well as average to high wine consumption which, if properly utilized, would be great for business if they leisure management techniques would be employed. For example, broadsheet may be offered to connoisseurs while waiting for their food and wine. In this way, they would be more likely to come back even if they are not very satisfied with the food and wine (usually because it is foreign to them) but would come back for the added service. The same may be true for young singletons who would appreciate adventure. Wine drinking contest every now and then would not only encourage them to come and have an adventure, it may even increase their visit to the restaurants to practice on the “strange” Chinese wine.
It is interesting to note there are more conservatives in Chinese restaurants as opposed to other restaurants. Now, assuming that all the 93% who drink wine would come from other groups, there would still be 5 out of the 19 conservatives who would drink wine in this scenario – a considerably high number considering they are conservatives. Therefore, it is safe to say that Chinese restaurants are good place to promote wine drinking if only for this fact.
The market potential of Chinese restaurants is huge as 87% of the respondents say that they go there once a month. More than half, in fact, go there every week. The reason for visiting is mostly for social reasons at 92% but business and personal reasons are not too far behind at 89% and 81% respectively. Therefore, those who are managing leisure should make sure that these reasons are properly utilized. In other words, customers should feel they are at recreation even though they are actually there for business or personal reasons. For instance, restaurant managers must make it a point that it the restaurant is a wi-fi zone so that the businessmen who would need to access their laptops can do so while they are having their business meetings. The restaurants should also provide more social reasons for people to come. For example, a Chinese New Year ball and other Chinese celebrations may be incorporated with other national celebrations in UK so that there would be ore opportunities for customers to go to the restaurants.
It was found out from the survey that majority of those who come to the Chinese restaurants also order wine and 7% even say there are other types of wine available. In other words, it can be seen that people have respect for the country of origin of the wine – China. They have learned to adapt the taste of Chinese wines since majority of the respondents – 66% – are either indifferent or favorably disposed to its taste. In addition, Table 4-5 validates the fact that the respondents have already accepted the Chinese tradition that wine is part of a typical Chinese meal as 88% reported to have ordered wine every visit. At this point, there is not much room for improvement as 88% is already a high number. What the management can do now is to encourage the tradition. This 88% can still be expected to go a little bit higher, assuming they are able to convert the Conservatives into drinking wine. They should be given a good excuse to do so such as “We are just adapting to the Chinese culture.” And what better way to do that than to make friends with these conservatives so that next time they come, they would feel less strongly about their personal convictions about drinking wine and would relish in the fact that they are serving their Chinese friends interest by adapting to their culture.
So far, it can be seen that there are already at least five factors which influence customer selection of wine: (1) Individual background (i.e. whether they come from a particular group – connoisseurs, at-homers, young singletons, bargain-hunters, and conservatives); (2) Social Reasons; (3) Business Reasons; (4) Personal Reasons and (5) Appreciation of the Chinese Culture and they are very subtle reasons.
Now, we shall move on to the more obvious ones explicitly stated in the survey. According to Table 4-6, celebrating with family, friends, and/or business colleagues is the second motivation in choosing wine. This is consistent with previous findings that the major reason for going to Chinese restaurants is for business or socialization and that majority of those who go there also order wine. Therefore, this figure can be expected. What is incredulous, though, is that this is not the major motivating factor. Rather, waiter suggestion at 92% is the primary motivating factor. This is way above the norm in the United Kingdom. As discussed in Section 2.3, staffs in UK restaurants are generally not as keen as the Chinese in this area. In other words, there is more attention and involvement in Chinese restaurants. As a matter of fact, 86% of those surveyed stated that they were asked by the waiter if they were satisfied with the wine as opposed to the 15% figure in white cloth restaurants and 0% in casual restaurants. A good number (83%) also indicated that they were asked if they would want a second battle which is far better than the 25% in white cloth restaurants and 0% in casual restaurants.
Here, the strength of Chinese customer service becomes a big factor. The level of service which caused Joseph Cinque to give the Star Diamond award to Xiao Wang’s restaurant is also true of most UK Chinese restaurants as observed by the researcher. Among the things he observed are the waiters are shows great respect and humility towards their customers. They also relate to customers with formality but in a friendly fashion. They listen very well to the customers and are very sensitive to their needs. This sensitivity is probably the reason why the ask if the wine is good and why they offer another bottle if the customer is satisfied with it. Sometimes, a group of waiter would even line up behind an ordinary customer, according the individual with respect and importance that are usually given to high officials and other VIPs (i.e. very important people.)
Table 4-6 also shows that taste, color, presentation, feel and/or texture – all intrinsic factors of wine – do not have strong influence in the selection of wine by the customers. Only 66% of the respondents consider this important and they are most likely those who have grown accustomed already to the taste of Chinese wines or else, have adventurous tongues. Wine promotion and waiter suggestion are also non-factors. Perhaps this is because, as the researcher observed, they are virtually non-existent like the rest of the UK. Finally, the 7% rating for Environmental Concern suggest that it is not a factor at all. Therefore, in addition to the five factors mentioned, Table 4-6 only adds one new factor and that is the (6) waiter suggestion, otherwise known as the human service factor.
In Section 2.3, it was discussed that wine lists are potential factor which influences people to purchase wine but it was not taken advantaged of in the mainstream UK restaurants such as those in the white table cloth and casual dining sectors. In the context of Chinese restaurants, this is also the case. In fact, only 47% reported that there is a separate wine list while the rest say that it is integrated in the regular menu in most cases. There is also no general consensus on the nature of these wine lists as some (9%) say it is very long while others (10%) say it is short. Some (13%) say it has tasting notes while others (11%) say there food combination. Since these figures are very low, it is most likely that none of these descriptions fit the observation of the customers. That is why, once again, wine list would not make it in the list of factors that influence consumer selection of wines in Chinese restaurants. The researcher, however, would not suggest that this general weakness of UK restaurants be addressed in the context of Chinese restaurants as the researcher does not see an urgent need for it. The waiters are more enough to compensate for this. Since they are very knowledgeable with their wines to the point that it becomes almost like a second nature as it was culturally engrained, they can replace the role of the wine list.
Going now to the characteristic of wine served, it is clear based on the survey that is Chinese wine that a great majority of them ordered. In fact, Table 4-8 validates the authenticity that such wines are Chinese as the major descriptions also fit traditional Chinese wines: 87% burning, 80% harsh, and 78% stinging. Those who say that the wines served to them were refreshing (34%), smooth (28%), refined (24%) or fruity (18%) either got deviant wines or non-Chinese wines which 7% of the respondents claimed to be also available in Chinese restaurants. Another validation of this is the fact that a great majority (86%) claim that the alcohol content of their drinks are from medium to high – another characteristic typical of Chinese wines. A third validation is the low recall of the brand name of the wine. If, indeed, people were busy socializing or engrossed in their business, they would not bother the waiter to ask for the name of the wine. Supposing the name is written in Chinese or some very foreign-sounding brand such as “Li Wang Tsu”, for example, then recall is indeed expected to be low.
Finally, a mere 74% said that they were satisfied with the wine. This figure, not being too high denotes that it can’t also be considered as a major factor influencing consumer. This would also mean that purchase of wine is not necessarily always a factor of satisfaction. Therefore, this finding should encourage the leisure manager all the more as this discovery would not pressure them to market the product. They could bank on the customer experience such as what waiters so professionally do and then, the product shall be added to them as well.
Based on this research, there are six factors that influence consumer selection of wine in Chinese restaurants and they are as follows: (1) Individual background (2) Social Reasons; (3) Business Reasons; (4) Personal Reasons; (5) Appreciation of the Chinese Culture and (6) Waiter suggestion.
Individual background pertains to the group they come from – connoisseurs, at-homers, young singletons, bargain-hunters, and conservatives. Each of these groups has certain propensity to drink and to spend on wine. They also have different wine involvement as well as income level. In general, the connoisseurs and young singletons are most likely to consume wine.
Social reasons pertain to gathering of family and friends. Because of the unique Chinese culture which emphasizes these values, Chinese restaurants are good places to socialize. However, because drinking wine is inherent in Chinese socialization, it also becomes the norm in Chinese Restaurants.
Business reasons pertain to business and business-related meetings done at Chinese restaurants. A strong support for this is that many of those who go Chinese restaurants are professionals (as in the case of the At-homers, Bargain-hunters and the Connoisseurs). Another possible reason is the growing numbers of Chinese businessmen who would naturally prefer their own in choosing dining places. (This, however, is just a hypothesis and still has to be tested.)
Appreciation of Chinese culture refers to the acceptance of UK consumers of Chinese customs and in particular, drinking Chinese wine. Despite the fact that there was a considerable number of people who are not satisfied with Chinese wine, there is also a good number (74%, to be precise) who find the burning, harsh, and stinging characteristic of Chinese wines satisfying.
Finally, waiter suggestion pertains to the high level of customer service exhibited by the waiters in Chinese restaurants and the sensitivity to check on the satisfaction of customers with the wine they ordered and offering them another bottle if necessary. The role of the manager, acting as from the perspective of leisure, in all this is to utilize all these factors so that people would be encouraged to go back and indulge in drinking more wine, causing the growth to the company and by extension, to the industry.
For future development on this research, it is recommended that a more qualitative approach be taken. Actual interview with the respondents may be done to validate further the results shown here. The scope of the survey may also be expanded to cover the Chinese restaurants in neighboring cities or a random sampling of UK’s cities may be done to widen the scope even more. This, however, would be limited on the budget for the research. Another interesting extension would be in the area of future developments such as that which was done in the UK which was reported in Section 2.5.