Discrimination and Children

Supporting Children E1 Identify FIVE (5) pieces of current legislation • Protection of Children Act 1999 (POCA) • E8:Human Act Rights 1998 • Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations 1997 • United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child • Health and Safety at Work Act 1974(HASAWA) E2 Describe how each piece of legislation will influence working practices in the setting. • Protection of Children Act 1999 (POCA) The purpose of the act is to “create a system for identifying persons considered to be unsuitable to work with children” (Protection of Children Act 1999, 2013, n. . 0). It means only people with enhanced CRBs may work with the children. At my placement all the staffs has enhanced CRBs and it was checked before they started working.

• E8: Human Rights Act 1998 The Human Rights Act requires the government to protect human life. This means that nobody – including the government – can try to end your life. (The Human Rights Act, 2013, n. d. ). In my setting everyone is treated equally and nobody is picked on because of their race, gender or culture. We also have an equality act please refer to my appendices 1. Fire precautions (workplace) regulations 1997 Fire Precautions act means that the premises should be checked regularly by fire offices and the nursery should be registered with the fire officers. All of the staff should know where the fire exit is what to do if there is a fire and they should practise it regularly. In my setting we make sure that the fire doors are clearly marked, never obstructed and easily opened from the inside. Please refer to my appendices 2. • Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 Health and safety at work gives guidance about health and safety.

Employers have to have a health and safety policy explaining that the nursery is safe and the children’s welfare are in good hands. In my setting they make sure they carry out risk assessments to make sure everything is safe they also have the policy up in the staff room so everyone can see. Please refer to my appendices 3 for the health and safety policy. ? United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child gives children and young people under the age of 18 their own rights. “It reinforces the.

Importance of fundamental human dignity, highlights and defends the family’s role in children’s live and seeks respect for children”(Tassoni et al, 2007, P. 115). In my setting all children are allowed to use their rights. They also make sure that the child’s interest is put before anything. E3 Describe how the policies and procedures will help safeguards children. Policies and procedures help safeguard children because they give the staff a clear understanding of how you should look after the children and how you should abide by the rule.

It keeps the children’s safety in place and the parents have a clear mind that their children are safe at nursery because of the nurseries policy and procedure. A policy is a rule and a procedure is how you would follow the policy (rule). This helps safeguard children because. Everyone parent, staff or children know what they need to be doing or what is safe or not. It also helps safeguard children for example if there was no policy about who has access into the building then that can be putting the staff or the child’s life in danger.

In my setting we have a safeguarding policy which is maintaining children’s safety and security on premises so maintaining the highest possible security of their premises to ensure that each child is safely cared for at the nursery. Please refer to my appendices 4. E4 Describe how the policies and procedures promote fair, just and inclusive Strategies Policies and procedures promote fair, just and inclusive strategies because all the children get treated fairly and they or their families are not discriminated against their colour, race, gender, religion etc. Settings that are fair, just and inclusive recognise that anti -discriminatory practice means that individual needs are taken into account and that children and their families are not expected to all be the same” (Tassoni, 2007, pg. 120). Ways that the setting can be inclusive is by their setting policy because some children take longer to settle down then other so they should all have their own time. Promoting a fair, just and inclusive strategy can also be the equality policy which is all children are treated the same and they all get treated the same way if they misbehave.

Please refer to my appendices 5 on equality of opportunity. Ways of helping children promote fair, just and inclusive strategies is also by following legislations such as the Race Relations Act 1976 ;amp; Sex Discrimination Act 1975 ;amp; 1986. The race relations act promotes fairness because it is illegal and against the law to discriminate against other peoples race. An inclusive practice means that all the staff are all obliged to make a policy on how all children should be treated the same. E5 Describe TWO strategies which the setting may use to empower children to develop independence and self-reliance Challenges The settings may use a lot of strategies to empower children to develop independence and self-reliance. They can set up activities to challenge the children for example if the child cannot ride a bike then you can set up an activity including bikes so the child can try and attempt to ride the bike. Or if they want to use the bathroom and the child can not undress themselves then you can maybe play a game or sing a song to do with unfastening buttons and let the child try by themselves. Giving and providing choices

E8:To help empower children the setting can give the children lots of choices like at my placement they set up a range of activities from play dough, arts and craft or building blocks this gives children the option to choose what they want to play with. When children are empowered they are more likely to develop a sense of themselves as capable and confident learners. In the centre you could expect to see empowering practices such as: children having choice and making decisions; setting their own learning goals; being consulted about what they will do next; and also having a say about what will be recorded and collected about their learning. Early Childhood Education. A guide For Parents, 2007, n. d. ) D2 assess the effectiveness of the strategies which empower children to develop independence and self reliance. To access the effectiveness of the strategies you can observer the child for example if you give the child an activity which is quite challenging then you monitor the Childs progress to see how they developed, so you can observe the child before you have set the challenge and after to see the Childs progress. Giving and providing choices is a good strategy because you can communicate with the child and ask them what they want.

You can also do observations whilst the child is doing it so you see if the child is good at making their own decisions. E6 Give examples of how settings may prepare children for transfer or transitions An example of transition is a child moving from baby unit to pre-school. When the child is two they move them from baby unit into pre-school. This can be a big transition because the child may not be used to the routine of the new nursery. It can also make them feel lonely as they will not have their friends around.

It can make them feel scared because in pre-school the children are very much independent whereas in baby unit they can depend on their key worker and members of staff. In my setting the staffs prepares for this transition by introducing the child to their new keyworker and letting them spend time with the keyworker so they can get to know them. I think this is good because in my setting the child eventually moves into pre-school they will at least have the keyworker there to introduce them. The key worker policy is also used.

Another way the staff can prepare for the transition is by getting the child’s old keyworker to bring them into the nursery so they can feel comfortable. E8: It will also make the child feel safe because they have someone they know and trust there with them. I think this is a good idea because if the child didn’t come with their old keyworker, they can feel out of placed and worried especially because they will be one the youngest children there. Other ways of helping the child move to pre-school is to bring them into the new class and give them a tour around the whole of the class.

In my setting the child’s key worker shows the child around so they can get used to it. The keyworker also lets the child get involved with the activities e. g. reading time or group time. (Transitions: Building on Learning, 2010) D1 Explain the key issues relating to the practice which supports children to prepare for transitions Keyworkers When preparing for transition the keyworker and staff need to consider aspects such as information about the child and ways they can gather this. The keyworker will have to meet with the child’s old key worker and discuss information on the child.

The new keyworker will have to gather up all the information’s on the child, find out about the child’s health or if they have problems eating, if they have speech problems, if they are shy or confident. This will help the keyworker get to know the child and for the keyworker to know what level the child is at and how to help the child develop. The key worker can plan home visits to go and meet the child’s parents and see how the child gets on at home. (Transitions: Building on Learning, 2010). They can also plan to talk to the parents about risk assessment.

Discuss the insurance, and may give the parents a copy of the child’s timetable and the routine of the new class. They can also plan to see how the child will get on after the transitions. The keyworker may also invite the parent into the nursery and involve them with the activities. They can organise information sessions for families to come and discuss or listen to practitioners from the current and old setting. The keyworker can also organise transition where the parent can visit with the child so they can familiarise with the new setting. • Parent partnership and involvement

The key worker can set up meetings with the parents to discuss strategies to help the child fit in the new class, they can also ask the parents to come spend a day with the child at the setting so the child can feel safe with their parents/carers because they have someone there that they know and trust. The setting can also have an agreement with the parents to come pick up the children maybe a bit earlier every day because the child may not be used to setting yet. “To assist parents, preschool teachers can arrange visits to the school and take parents along on the kindergarten field trip.

They can ask for children to be paired with a kindergarten “buddy” who can take them around, while parents meet with the teacher or go to the office to register their child”(Successful Transition to Kindergarten: The Role of Teachers ;amp; Parents, 2008, n. d). The staff can also set up activities with the parents so the parents know what the child will be doing at the nursery. They can do activities such as “visit the school so the children can meet the kindergarten teacher and see what kindergarten is really like. Try to arrange for them to see more than one type of classroom activity, such as seatwork time and free choice time.

Show them where the bathroom and cubbies are located”. (Successful Transition to Kindergarten: The Role of Teachers ;amp; Parents, 2008, n. d). E7 Explain the causes and effects of discrimination on children. The causes and effects of discrimination which may occur in the setting can be the child’s race, religion or culture. A child can be discriminated in the setting because of their race if they mat be a different colour or different country. Maybe the child is the only African in the setting and they might have a different accent then the others.

The effects of the discrimination can be that the child starts having behaviour problems because nobody is giving them attention so they seek for negative attention. A child can also be discriminated on their religion. The child may believe in different beliefs from the other children because of their religion. They might not eat a certain meat or they might not celebrate other events. This can make them feel left out and isolated. A child can be discriminated on their culture if they may be from the traveller community and the staff may treat them differently because of the way they talk, dress or act.

This can lead to the child having behaviour issues or even talking problems because they will be afraid to talk to a staff because they laugh at them so they keep their mouth shut. B1 Discuss how the causes and effects of discrimination may affect practice in the setting. Practise in the setting may be affected by discrimination because maybe all the staff is from the same race or they are only put up pictures of children up on the wall from a certain race, culture etc. The settings can make sure that they have a equality act so that they have know how to treat everyone fairly.

The setting can be affected by discrimination maybe because staff are always making remarks on the way a child’s accent is different is not a safe thing to do because they may see if as a joke but it is still discrimination. The setting may also have to remember to have pictures of children from all over the world. They can also be discriminated on if they do not haave knowledge or understanding of other culture, faiths and backgrounds. This is bad because the childrren will not learn about all the other culture. They also should not allow discrimination and anyone making challenging remarks gets dealt with in a calm but serious.

Manner. For example a child can say to another child I don’t like you because you are a different colour, you can solve this by “asking the child where they have heard it and if they understand what they have just said. Also let them know it is not appropriate at all and let them know their remarks are hurtful” (Tassoni et al, 2007n pg. 155). In my setting everyone is treated the same there are a range of cultures and pictures of children all over the world. C1 Evaluate ONE (1) theoretical perspective which supports the development of strategies for empowering children. According to Albert Bandura self efficacy is the belief in ones capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations. “In other words, self efficacy is a person’s belief in his or her ability to succeed in a particular situation. Bandura described these beliefs as determinates of how people think behave and feel”(What is self efficacy, n. d. ). In order to empower children to develop self confidence and high self esteem they should let children express their ability In order to succeed in situations this is called self efficacy.

In my setting the staffs always gives the children tasks, activities or even responsibility according to the Childs level. This is a good thing because it makes the children become independent and plus it helps them learn more because they will be finding it out themselves. For example the staff will set up a cutting and sticking activity for the children, but instead of the staff doing all the cutting and sticking for the children they let the children do it themselves which allows the children to learn and find out for themselves.

If they did not do this then the children will have poor self efficacy “it also means that where children have not managed to achieve a task that you might help them to evaluate the reasons behind this (Tassoni et al, 2007, 135). I agree with this theory because It gives children confidence to try out new and harder activities because they know that they can do it, it also gives them that willingness to learn more and to be independent. A1 Reflect on the influence of legislation on working practices within early years settings.

The influence of legislation in settings should be about the rights of children. The setting should be able to make sure that the children welfare is in safety and their needs shall be met. Legislations link to this because the setting makes policies and procedures which link into the correct legislations for example the setting may have an equality act on the rights of children this can be linked to the E8: Human Acts1998. Legislations have made a big impact within early years setting because it gives children equal opportunities and also makes the child safe within the setting.

It has given the parents assurance of which their child is being looked after by and if they are in safe hands. If we didn’t have legislations then we would not have policies and procedures which will be bad because the children’s health will and safety will not be safe and also children will not be treated equally. It can also be putting the child in risk of danger because there will not be a health and safety act so there will not be risk assessment being carried out etc. In my setting the staffs akes sure that they do everything according to the policies and procedures, for example they make sure they celebrate everything from Chinese New Year, Christmas and even diwali this shows that the setting is an inclusive setting and everyone’s culture or beliefs is taken into account. This is linked to the Equality act 2006 and also E8: Human rights 1998. Also in our setting we have pictures of children from all other the world and we have posters of how to say hello in different languages. This shows that the setting welcomes everyone from different cultures and it shows that it is an inclusive setting.

The health and safety act has influenced settings because the setting makes sure they follow the policies in their policies and procedures on health and safety. For example if the setting wanted to set up an activity indoors or outdoors they will do a risk assessment to make sure that the place or the thing the child wants to play on or go visit is safe and there are no dangerous items left around. In our setting risk assessment are done regularly this makes the child safe within the setting. The influences of legislations in the nursery can also help promote children’s right and how the children get treated at nursery.

The staff also needs to consider the staff ratio and how much children can be with the staff. It also affects the staffs planning meetings because when they are planning they need to take the children’s needs into account such as the child’s safety, security or the child’s welfare. Bibliography. Education physiology [Online] Available from: http://psychology. about. com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/self_efficacy. htm [Accessed 22 February 2013]. Beith, K. , Bulman, K. , Eldrige, H. , Tassoni, P. (2007) Childcare and Education 4th edition: Heinemann